Missouri Governor Signs Law Adopting “Daubert” Standard for Expert Testimony in State’s Courts

Featured Expert Column—Judicial Gatekeeping of Expert Evidence

Tager_09181Evan M. Tager, a Partner in the Washington, DC office of Mayer Brown LLP, with Carl J. Summers, an Associate with Mayer Brown LLP.

In a victory for keeping junk science out of courtrooms, Missouri recently enacted H.B. 153, which adopts the Daubert standard.

H.B. 153 establishes four criteria for an expert witness’s testimony:

(1) The expert’s scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will help the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue; (2) The testimony is based on sufficient facts or data; (3) The testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods; and (4) The expert has reliably applied the principles and methods to the facts of the case.

These criteria mirror Federal Rule of Evidence 702 and the Daubert standard.

Although H.B. 153 applies broadly, it is not universally applicable. It does not apply in certain family and juvenile court proceedings. In addition, H.B. 153 does not permit an expert witness in a criminal case to testify “whether the defendant did or did not have a mental state or condition that constitutes an element of the crime charged or of a defense.” Continue reading

US Food Security and Farmers’ Livelihoods at Stake in “Waters of the US” Rule Rewrite

Lawrence KoganGuest Commentary

By Lawrence A. Kogan*

For decades, federal agencies have incrementally extended their control over agricultural lands by expanding the definition of “waters of the US” (WOTUS) under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and asserting broad legal jurisdiction over WOTUS-adjacent “wetlands.” Those efforts triggered intense legal conflicts, facilitated the CWA’s growth into a “regulatory hydra,” and caused a “reversal of terms [in our unique relationship with government] that is worthy of Alice in Wonderland.”1

President Trump recently issued Executive Order 13778 as the first step aimed at curtailing this government juggernaut.  The order directs the heads of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) to review for substantial revision or rescission their jointly issued 2015 CWA regulation that expanded the definition of “WOTUS.”  Presumably, EPA’s review of this regulation will be undertaken while the October 9, 2015 federal court-issued stay of its implementation remains in place.2 Continue reading

Drunk Suing?: Once Again, Plaintiffs File Food-Labeling Class Action Due to “Confusion”

Here windexe go again.  Lawsuits over allegedly deceptive food labels have become commonplace—a tried-and-true tactic for some plaintiffs’ attorneys to earn an easy buck.  By claiming that the labels were intentionally misleading in some way, these lawyers and the purportedly confused clients they represent, seek to leverage the specter of a class action to force quick settlements.  Unfortunately, this tactic often works.  In fact, it has worked so well that entire subsets of labeling lawsuits have sprung up, among them “healthy food” labels, “all natural” labels, and slack-fill cases.  We can now add a new category to the list: plaintiffs alleging they were deceived because their beer was not brewed where they thought it was.

Plaintiffs Sara Cilloni and Simone Zimmer filed a putative class action, Cilloni v. Craft Brew Alliance, Inc., in the Food Court (also known as the US District Court for the Northern District of California) against Craft Brew Alliance, the owners of Kona Brewing Company (Kona).  Kona was founded in 1995 on Hawaii’s Big Island.  Taking pride in the company’s origins, Kona stylizes each of its beers in an overtly Hawaiian theme, inviting customers to enjoy the “Liquid Aloha” and “Catch A Wave.”  With names like Big Wave Golden Ale, Longboard Island Lager, and Wailua Wheat, Kona’s products celebrate their history and ties to Hawaiian culture.

According to plaintiffs, however, this branding is merely an elaborate plan to “exploit strong consumer sentiment for Hawaiian-made products.”  Plaintiffs allege that the labeling on Kona’s products is false and misleading because, even though Kona was founded in Hawaii and produces beer in Hawaii for that state’s market, none of the beer Kona sells in the continental United States is produced in Hawaii.  Thus, Kona “intentionally misleads” its consumers into purchasing Hawaiian beer, when in fact the beer is produced in several states throughout the continental US.  According to plaintiffs, consumers “would not have purchased the beer, or would have paid significantly less for the beer, had they known the true origins of the Kona … beer they purchased.”  Plaintiffs join an increasing list of litigants claiming that beer labels are false or misleading because a beer with foreign origins is actually produced in the US.  The owners of Fosters, Becks, Guinness, and Kirin Ichiban have all faced mislabeling claims.

Continue reading

With the Supreme Court Poised to Address Personal Jurisdiction Again, State High Courts Reject Attempts to Evade “Daimler v. Bauman”

kobakGilletteingraham

Guest Commentary

By Sara Kobak, W. Michael Gillette, and Aukjen Ingraham, Shareholders with Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt, P.C. in Portland, OR.

Since the US Supreme Court clarified the due-process limits on the exercise of general or all-purpose jurisdiction in Daimler AG v. Bauman, 134 S. Ct. 746 (2014), plaintiffs have reached for new arguments to support the exercise of general jurisdiction over corporate defendants in forums where the defendants cannot fairly be considered “at home.” With notable exceptions—including the decisions at issue in Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court of California, Case No. 16-466, and Tyrell v. BNSF Railway Co., Case No. 16-405, both scheduled for argument before the Supreme Court on April 25, 2017—the majority of lower courts have rejected these attempts to evade Daimler and its due-process requirements. The most recent examples of decisions enforcing Daimler come from the high courts of Oregon and Missouri, with the Washington Legal Foundation submitting an amicus brief in the Oregon case. Continue reading

Supreme Court Cert Grant in “Farha v. US” Can Clarify Level of Criminal Intent Needed to Prove “Knowledge”

johnlauroGuest Commentary

By John Lauro, a white-collar defense attorney who represented one of the WellCare defendants at trial and at the Eleventh Circuit.

On Friday, April 21, 2017, the US Supreme Court will meet in conference to consider a pending petition for certiorari in Farha v. United States, No. 16-888, a major white-collar fraud case raising an important issue of concern to the defense bar and their clients: whether “deliberate indifference” is a sufficient level of mens rea for proving “knowledge” with respect to federal criminal statutes.  The High Court should grant review and reverse the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit ruling holding otherwise.

Farha is a classic case of overcriminalization, where civil and administrative remedies are more appropriate in the regulatory area of complex healthcare and business law. The case was extensively discussed in prior postings at the WLF Legal Pulse (here and here) and a WLF Legal Backgrounder [hot link to Kaiser’s piece]. In brief, following a raid by 200 FBI Agents at the offices of WellCare, a Florida Medicaid health maintenance organization, several executives, including the CEO, CFO, and general counsel, were indicted on healthcare fraud charges based on the government’s interpretation of Florida’s Medicaid law.   Continue reading

What Does Nullifying FCC’s Broadband Privacy Rules Mean for Consumers?

FCCPresident Trump signed a Congressional Review Act (CRA) resolution on April 3, 2017 that nullified the Federal Communication Commission’s (FCC) privacy rule aimed at Internet Service Providers (ISPs).  As discussed in the WLF Legal Pulse’s reading list for FCC regulators last month, the Commission adopted the rule just before the 2016 election over the opposition of two Commissioners (including one who has since become FCC Chairman).  WLF filed comments last May opposing the proposed rule.  Many media commentators and self-styled consumer advocates proclaimed that the proverbial sky was falling due to the nullification.  Such ideologically-fueled Chicken-Little rhetoric, however, does not reflect reality.

Post-nullification analyses bemoaned ISPs’ collection of consumers’ “personal information” and the ability of these companies to sell such information to expand their businesses.  Nay-sayers’ complaints essentially boiled down to the bromide offered in the Washington Post:  the CRA resolution “wipe[d] away landmark privacy protections for Internet users.” Continue reading

“U.S. v. Anthem/Cigna” and Regrettable Skepticism of Procompetitive Efficiencies

Antitrust & Competition — US Department of Justice

swisherAnthony W. Swisher, a Partner in the Washington, DC office of Squire Patton Boggs (US) LLP.

One of the principles underlying merger analysis has always been that mergers provide value to society. Historically, this idea has seen practical expression in a degree of humility on the part of the antitrust enforcement agencies, and a reluctance to intervene too hastily in a deal, lest they disrupt the benefits that might flow from it. Another practical expression of the recognition of merger-specific benefits is the availability of the efficiencies defense. Under the Horizontal Merger Guidelines, the Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division and the Federal Trade Commission will consider the degree to which a deal will permit the merging parties to obtain efficiencies that would not be available to them individually. Continue reading